Verb tables of Spanish verbs

(Rules of the conjugation of Spanish regular and irregular verbs)

Table of contents – verb tables

On this page you will find the following:

  1. General information
  2. Irregular verbs
  3. Tenses
  4. Further explanations and exercises

General information about the verb tables

In the Spanish verb tables, you will find the conjugations of the regular and irregular Spanish verbs as well as the auxiliary verbs ‘haber, ser,’ and ‘estar’.

All Spanish verbs are divided into three groups. Depending on their suffix (ending), they are conjugated accordingly:

  1. Verbs ending in ‘-ar’ (first conjugation)
  2. Verbs ending in ‘-er’ (second conjugation)
  3. Verbs ending in ‘-ir’ (third conjugation)

Apart from this, many Spanish verbs have particularities in their spelling, which are necessary to maintain the pronunciation of the base form. These modifications are regular and, therefore, do not need to be learned for each verb separately. It is sufficient to memorize the suffixes or endings listed below and apply them to the respective verb:

  1. The following changes in spelling are the rule:
    • Verbs ending in ‘-ger’ and ‘-gir’:
      • before ‘-a’ and ‘-o’, ‘g’ becomes ‘j(surgir → surja)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-car’:
      • before ‘-e’, ‘c’ becomes ‘qu(tocar → toque)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-cer’ and ‘-cir’:
      • before ‘-a’ and ‘-o’, ‘c’ becomes ‘z(mecer → mezas)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-guar’:
      • before ‘-e’, ‘gu’ becomes ‘(atestiguar → atestigüé)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-gar’:
      • before ‘-e’, ‘g’ becomes ‘gu(propagar → propagué)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-zar’:
      • before ‘-e’, ‘z’ becomes ‘c(alcanzar → alcancé)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-guir’:
      • before ‘-a’ and ‘-o’, ‘gu’ becomes ‘g(distinguir → distinga)
    • Verbs ending in ‘-quir’:
      • before ‘-a’ and ‘-o’, ‘qu’ becomes ‘c(delinquir → delinco)
  2. Likewise, some verbs show a change of accent. This adaption is required to keep the original stress. Examples:
    • Many verbs with the suffix ‘-iar’:
      • criarcría
    • Many verbs with the suffix ‘-uar’:
      • actuaractúo

Note on the irregular Spanish verbs

Making a standard rule is impossible because the irregular verbs in Spanish often differ considerably from each other. Therefore, have a look at the following list of conjugations, including all unique forms, as a learning aid:

Note on the tenses

Besides the common tenses, there is also the Pretérito Anterior. This past tense is no longer in use nowadays and is therefore not included in the verb tables. It has practically been replaced by the Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto, which fulfils the same function.

Further explanations related to ‘Spanish verbs’

The following articles refer to the topic ‘Verb tables of Spanish verbs’ and could also be interesting: